Sunday, March 15, 2020

The Reach of Sovereigns Essays - Philosophy, Political Philosophy

The Reach of Sovereigns Essays - Philosophy, Political Philosophy The Reach of Sovereigns Thomas Hobbes and John Locke both discuss the ideas surrounding government and people in their writings. Both agree that, at a minimum, a government must protect its people and their property, but Locke proposes that a government's obligations extend beyon d that. Before one can discuss the purpose of society's government, the reason society and government arose in the first place should be investigated. Hobbes and Locke both wrote about the period before government, or the state of nature, and how it relate s to government. Although they differ in many regards, they have some overlapping principles; for instance, both feel that man is essentially free to do what he wants when he is in a state of nature. What Hobbes and Locke disagree on is what man does with this freedom. Hobbes feels that man is violent and selfish in the state of nature; therefore, man must fear other people. Locke, on the other hand, feels that man has an ingrained sense of morality, and while the s tate of nature is chaotic, is is not a war zone where people live in constant fear of one another as Hobbes proclaims. I tend to agree more with Hobbes's idea on humans in nature because, before anything else, man is an animal. Although people are born with traits such as empathy and compassion, m orals are a learned behavior as opposed to innate, so a man without society to teach him morals would be immoral. For example, without a government to regulate fishing rights on rivers, two people wanting to fish from the same bank would physically fight o ver it. The biggest and strongest would win, and the winner could fish. People had to fear each other. Although it may be possible for people who are afraid of each other to work together for long enough to build a society, it is highly unlikely. Something had to dispel people's fear of each other before a society could form, and nothing dispels a fear more quickly than a bigger fear. For instance, a student may be walking around late in the evening the night before an exam, very afraid that they may fail t he exam. If a mugger comes along threatening their life for their wallet, the student's worries about their exam will have disappeared completely because they are now occupied by this more imminent threat. This situation is analogous to an ancient person a nd their sovereign. Originally, the person is worried about their physical safety and the safety of their possessions when they are with other people, but once a powerful sovereign appears, the person and the people that would assault him or steal from him have something greater to fear. Potential assailants and thieves are too afraid of what the sovereign would do to them if they were caught committing crimes to commit said crimesgranted in primitive society they would not be called crimes. Regardless, t he rate at which people are assaulted and stolen from goes down enough under the rule of this sovereign that people do not have to constantly live in fear of other people. Over generations, they can even learn to live with others and develop a complex s oci ety. If people were not naturally animalistic and bruteish, society could stem simply from cooperation, and the presence of a sovereign who instills fear in people would be unnecessary. However, for people to cooperate, they need to trust each other, and w hen people are afraid of each other, as they are in nature, they cannot trust each other. The role of the sovereign is therefore to protect people and their possessions. However, this raises some questions. First of all, assuming that protecting people and property is the sole purpose of the sovereign (or government), to what extent can they go to protect their people or their people's property? In addition, what constitutes a person's self and property? Lastly, while Hobbes and Locke both agree that it is the sovereign's duty to protect their people's natural right to life and property, does a sovereign's duty extend past that? In absolute monarchies, Hobbes's idea of the structure of government, the sovereign's reign

Friday, February 28, 2020

Most Significant Events Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Most Significant Events - Essay Example The last half of the twentieth century brought to America many remarkable social, economic and political events. Choosing the five I feel had the most powerful effect on America and the World was no easy task. Each decade held many amazing, newsworthy and notable times. After much consideration the five I have elected to go with are The Cold war, The Vietnam War, Reaganomics, Nixon’s Legacy, and Liberal Reform. Following World War II, there was a significant increase in births. The children born of this era were called, â€Å"The Baby Boom Generation†. This year, 2011, the Baby Boom Generation ranges in age from forty-six to sixty-five and represent about twenty-seven percent of the United States population. This almost twenty-year span saw the largest number of births on U.S. record. The parents of the â€Å"Baby Boomers† were spawned of the â€Å"Great Depression† and the â€Å"Dust Bowl†; children of poverty, deprived of so much. The greatest war in human history, World War II, changed their lives. After World War II the Baby Boomers and their parents experienced that American Dream. Mostly because of the GI Bill of Rights that was passed on June 22nd, 1944. This bill allowed returning GI’s to be able to buy homes and return to school. Jobs were everywhere and easy to find, particularly in the North East and along the coast. Because of the GI Bill, the suburbs were born as a couple after the couple moved their families outside the cities.... This caused a great boost to the economy as new housing developments, new schools and shopping centers sprung up everywhere; a nice safe place for children to grow up. The fifties were a time of innocence, in the beginning, but by the close of the fifties, innocence was lost as suburban moms began to work outside the home and â€Å"Latch Key† kids were born. The Sixties was the divining moment for the â€Å"Baby Boomers†. Their music, social ideas, lifestyles and the Civil Rights movement changed many things. â€Å"Make Love Not War was their motto and they lived for the advice of Timothy Leary’s advice to, â€Å"Turn On, Tune In and Drop Out†. By 1979, lots of â€Å"Boomers† were increasing the divorce rate. The sixties ideals had changed the way people thought, acted and believed. Times had changed and for most, there was no going back. From 1945-1954, President Truman evolved a policy of containment designed to hedge in the U.S.S.R., but even so , the cold war turned hot in Korea. At home, an anti-Communist crusade against suspected subversives subsided only after its reckless leader, Senator Joseph McCarthy, was censured. From 1963-1975, the idea that communism in Southeast Asia threatened vital American interests was argued and debated by many presidents. But it was Lyndon Johnson, who became President after Kennedy’s assignation; who began a massive bombing campaign and sent half a million American troops to intervene in Vietnam’s civil war. In 1974, amid dissent at home, Richard Nixon, then President of the United States, gradually began to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam, signaling limits to America’s influence as a superpower. In 1965, thousands of US

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Existing Economic Research on Benefits and Opportunities of Public Term Paper

Existing Economic Research on Benefits and Opportunities of Public Education - Term Paper Example The paper focuses on the benefits and opportunities of public education with optimal policy suggestions for improvement. Summaries The article, Identity and Schooling: Some Lessons of the Economics of Education written by Akerlof and Kranton describes the identity generation of the students in several educational institutions. The pupils attending the privately managed schools generally tend to emerge from more socio-economically advanced backgrounds and the pupils from weak financial background opt for a public school education. In other words there lies a socio-economic stratification of the students attending publicly and privately managed schools. Identity generation is the prime motive in both types of educational institutions. For the development of identity, the economists often focus on the social interactions of the pupils in schools. The quality of the school is an important parameter in establishing the way in which the students fit themselves in a school’s social s etting. Again, the academic achievement is also a prime variable for the development of the identity of a student. ... selves to some social categories or groups with varied racial and ethnic designations which are found in the instances of the words used such as jock and nerds. Remaining within a social group, stereotypical physical attributes are developed within the individuals and the utility loss and gain are simultaneously related with low or high status respectively1. Educational achievement of the students also depends on the internalization of the school values among the students. Comer has demonstrated the disciplinary process with the case of an angry fifth grader attacking a small child with his belt. The teacher instead of punishing him helped the child to write a letter to his father who has been denied a pass from the jail for the Christmas. The teacher made the child understand that he could not take out his anger over other children in the school. The teacher taught him how to obey the rules. This internalization of moral values as entrusted upon the students by the school authoritie s should help the students in achieving success in their future life2. In the article, Competition between Private and Public Schools, Vouchers and Peer-Group Effects written by Epple and Romano, the competitive strategies adopted in the private schools and the public school are described. An overall preexisting notion is that the public schools are more or less tax free institutions. On the other hand the private schools are basically known to be institutions which are tax financed and the students studying in those schools have to pay tuition fees. Similarly there is also a pre-existing notion about the social positioning of the students studying in public school and the private schools. Various measures of reforms in the educational system have been encountered in the past decades. One

Friday, January 31, 2020

The Benefits, Pitfalls, and Challenges of Special Needs Students Essay

The Benefits, Pitfalls, and Challenges of Special Needs Students Accessing the General Curriculum - Essay Example It is common knowledge that the society in general is more concerned with academic competence of normal students. But one factor that cannot be ignored by society is that there is a group of young people (male or female) who might need a certain amount of special attendance so that the teaching profession can attain a special status that stands apart from formal teaching procedures. This paper attempts to review such a stand which takes into consideration legal, moral, and social aspects with regard to children challenged with any form of disability and attempts to bind or conform a general curriculum which such children could be exposed to. The practical implementation of the needs of special needs students: The 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) made it clear that each student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) should clearly describe how the learner’s â€Å"disability affects the child’s involvement with and progre ss in the general curriculum† and what â€Å"services, program modifications, and supports necessary for the child to be involved in and progress in the general curriculum† (Wehmeyer, Agran & Lattin, 2001, p. 327). These guidelines have prompted educators to reconsider how the educational programs of special needs students are designed and carried out. ... efforts should be undertaken to ensure that no misapplication or overemphasis of any component of standards-based reform must occur in the teaching learning process. The authors argue that special needs students are just like others and these learners achieve challenging standards only when there is higher expectation is demanded from them. However, there is also the danger of setting high standards and narrowing the curriculum to core content areas resulting in higher dropout rate among such special needs learners who already have difficulty and subsequent previous experiences of failure. The rationale to offer special needs students access to the general curriculum seeks â€Å"to ensure that all students have access to a challenging curriculum, to ensure that all students are held to high expectations, and to ensure that students with disabilities are not left out of the accountability system being established for schools† (Wehmeyer, Agran & Lattin, 2001, p. 330). It can be noticed that parental and teacher expectations are low for students with special needs. Therefore, it is essential that special needs children are offered such educational programs that challenge them and that everyone, including the teachers and parents, holds high expectations for their achievement. The question whether special education curriculum or the general curriculum is best suitable for special needs learners is worth analyzing. It is true that a general curriculum makes neither distinction nor marginalization among the learners. While general curriculum offers equal educational opportunities for everyone, its competency to offer Individualized Education Programs for the special needs children is quite debatable. Therefore, it is imperative that the general curriculum is â€Å"adapted,

Thursday, January 23, 2020

The End of World War I :: World War I History

The End of World War I As the news of the individual surrender spread, fellow Germans saw that they were losing the war and started mutinies. Many people told the Kaiser to seek an armistice with the allies. However, he did not show any intensions of giving up. With the end so close, many American newspapers started to create rumors that the armistice had signed been signed by the Germans. They assumed that our leaders were suing for peace. They were still only considering signing an armistice. The American armistice was based on Woodrow Wilson's fourteen-point plan. He did have a hard time convincing the other allies that the fourteen-point plan was going to work. Wilson who was wanted peace without actually winning the war. By the time the armistice was signed, the people of Germany were happy that the war had ended. The treaty was signed at Rethondes, France at 5:00 pm on November 11 1918. Two days earlier Kaiser Williams of Germany had abdicated and fled to the Netherlands. Prince Max of Beden had immediately accepted defeat. The word quickly passed along the front and at 11:00 the battles should stop. Many notes had passed between Prince Williams and President Wilson in the days that led to the armistice. All of the matters were discussed through notes although a representative was sent to explain the idea behind the fourteen point and other American theories that led to the formation of the armistice. After the armistice was signed and the war ended many of the Americans flooded the towns located near the front, they celebrated. Many sang their national anthem. The streets were crowded with people. The town center was so filled that you could hardly see anything. Church bells ringed through out Europe to praise the end of the war. Many people even sung huge flags of either America or France. Many of the soldiers just stared and wondered what was going on. They had seen all the death and did not realize why the men celebrated. Many people endorsed the fourteen-point plan. Some even thought that he would win the noble peace prize for his work during the tragic war. Many Americans believed that their president their war hero had ended the war with the fourteen points for peace. Many of the allies wanted to put and end to the war by claming victory and puncture the economy of Germany forever. The End of World War I :: World War I History The End of World War I As the news of the individual surrender spread, fellow Germans saw that they were losing the war and started mutinies. Many people told the Kaiser to seek an armistice with the allies. However, he did not show any intensions of giving up. With the end so close, many American newspapers started to create rumors that the armistice had signed been signed by the Germans. They assumed that our leaders were suing for peace. They were still only considering signing an armistice. The American armistice was based on Woodrow Wilson's fourteen-point plan. He did have a hard time convincing the other allies that the fourteen-point plan was going to work. Wilson who was wanted peace without actually winning the war. By the time the armistice was signed, the people of Germany were happy that the war had ended. The treaty was signed at Rethondes, France at 5:00 pm on November 11 1918. Two days earlier Kaiser Williams of Germany had abdicated and fled to the Netherlands. Prince Max of Beden had immediately accepted defeat. The word quickly passed along the front and at 11:00 the battles should stop. Many notes had passed between Prince Williams and President Wilson in the days that led to the armistice. All of the matters were discussed through notes although a representative was sent to explain the idea behind the fourteen point and other American theories that led to the formation of the armistice. After the armistice was signed and the war ended many of the Americans flooded the towns located near the front, they celebrated. Many sang their national anthem. The streets were crowded with people. The town center was so filled that you could hardly see anything. Church bells ringed through out Europe to praise the end of the war. Many people even sung huge flags of either America or France. Many of the soldiers just stared and wondered what was going on. They had seen all the death and did not realize why the men celebrated. Many people endorsed the fourteen-point plan. Some even thought that he would win the noble peace prize for his work during the tragic war. Many Americans believed that their president their war hero had ended the war with the fourteen points for peace. Many of the allies wanted to put and end to the war by claming victory and puncture the economy of Germany forever.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Le Coq Sportif

Governance of le coq In 2005, a Swiss Holding buys the brand Le Coq Sportif. Indeed the results of the brands were well below the desired expectations. With the partnership of Sir Robert Louis Dreyfus, a great Swiss businessman who was leader of the group including Adidas, Le Coq sportif sees the opportunity for a fresh start with this strategic alliance for the future. Airesis immediately set up a plan to revive the brand that demonstrates the strong interest of the group to give new life to this legendary French brand.Here is a chart explaining the governance of the brand Le Coq Sportif since it creation (1882) until the takeover by the Swiss holding Airesis. Few words about Airesis: Historic part: HPI Holding AG is a name that marked the industrial history of western Switzerland since 1920, date of creation of the company. Hermes Precisa International (formerly Plants Paillard) has built its success on the production of typewriters Hermes known internationally. Since 1981, the hol ding company HPI has been used as an investment vehicle for investments in new technologies that have suffered damage in the industry with full force in early 2000.Currently, there are eight entries all together in the sub-holding A2I SA. In 2004, reducing the part value of its shares cleaned up the company. A capital increase of the arrival of four participants (the Boards & More group, the group Fidexpert, group and society Ouat Hazard Properties SA). These arrivals have been extraordinary for the group which has restored and a new life HPI Holding AG, which has since become Airesis. The majority shareholders (Sirs: Robert Louis-Dreyfus, Yves Marchand and Marc-Henri Beausire) then set up the new company strategy: active management of its investments in private equity and residential property.Today the group owns brands such as: * Le Coq Sportif * Fanatic * Ion * North Kite boarding * North Sails Windsurf Here we are going to explain few words about each brand, because most of them are unknown. Fanatic: In 1999, leaving his first kite a board, Fanatic has to believe in this new trend. With its history in windsurfing, the company was able Fanatic showcase its expertise to make its entry into the sport in the making. Ion: In spring 2005, Boards & More brand launches Ion.The technical skills of the mark are highlighted in the wet suits, neoprene accessories, harnesses, a range of clothes and carrying bags, all items used in sports on the water. North Kite boarding: Kite boarding world leader. North Kite boarding has entered the market in 2001 and became leader. This brand has a very good technical level recognized. North Sails Windsurf: The company specializes North Sails sailboat U. S. and world number 1 in this sector. Boards & More has acquired the exclusive license for the sail of surfboards since 1981.Its strategic axis is oriented technique and style. Since late 2005, Robert Louis-Dreyfus, former owner of Addidas and Yves Marchand, who was the boss of the three stripes for France, have gained a foothold in the business and have made some good seeds to make: 10 million euros through the Swiss investment fund Airesis. And some big marketers have been poached in market heavyweights such as Reebok, Nike, Puma and Quicksilver†¦ For example, the arrival of Antoine Sathicq, former CEO of Adidas, which was transferred to the head as general manager of Le Coq Sportif.After joining Adidas in 1997 as director of sales, this former Procter & Gamble, aged 44, joined a new team of Le Coq Sportif establishment since its acquisition by Airesis. A team already marked by the culture of this Adidas Swiss investment funds: Airesis is held by Robert Louis-Dreyfus, former CEO of Adidas France, Marc-Henri Beausire and Yves Marchand, former CEO of three stripes. The latter assumed the presidency of Le Coq Sportif, replacing Olivier Jacques, former majority shareholder. Antoine Sathicq therefore had the task of launching again the Coq Sportif.Porterâ⠂¬â„¢s Five Forces: Sportswear Industry Internal Rivalry – Fierce Competition Adidas,Reebok, Nike – Mature Industry – Mostly Non-Price competition – Differentiation strategy Threat of New entrants – Capital Intensive – Strong Brand Following Economies of scale – High R & D Costs – Industry in consolidation phase Supplier Power – Raw Materials are abundantly available – Cheap resources commodity items – Cheap labor on the East World. Buyer Power – Everything depends on Customer Preferences – Price sensitivity issues – Growing power of retail chainsSubstitutes * Other types of products from other brands * New brands that make the sport more ready to wear high-end (15 Serge Blanco, Eden Park †¦ ) * Entertainment brand to substitute to sport activities (Reading, video games†¦) Internal Rivalry – Fierce Competition Adidas,Reebok, Nike – Mature Industry – Mostly Non-Price competition – Differentiation strategy Threat of New entrants – Capital Intensive – Strong Brand Following Economies of scale – High R & D Costs – Industry in consolidation phase Supplier Power – Raw Materials are abundantly available Cheap resources commodity items – Cheap labor on the East World. Buyer Power – Everything depends on Customer Preferences – Price sensitivity issues – Growing power of retail chains Substitutes * Other types of products from other brands * New brands that make the sport more ready to wear high-end (15 Serge Blanco, Eden Park †¦ ) * Entertainment brand to substitute to sport activities (Reading, video games†¦) Explanation: 1. Internal Rivalry * Fierce competition: In effect in the sportswear industry, there are many competitors.Two leaders have the most important share value on the market (Nike and Adidas). The competitors are smaller than the two big groups, whic h have much money to invest in marketing investment, and can develop easily than the smaller. * Mature industry: In this market, it’s difficult to innovate much more than today. The innovation exists for sure but it comes from details. It’s really hard to find for the company the perfect innovation. However companies works hard and try to find the best innovation possible to increase their share value. Mostly non-price competition: In this market, the price war doesn’t exist. In effect the competition between companies comes from the marketing, brand image and innovation (sometimes) but not on the price. All the brand are close and cannot compete on the price. * Differentiation strategy: A differentiation strategy will pursue a unique position among your competitors. The aim of the strategy is for the business to become unique in the minds of its customers. For this reason, a small business needs to create a product offering that is somehow unique.Uniqueness can be achieved through different factors like design or brand image, technology, customer service or other attractive features. 2. Threat of new entrants * Capital intensive and strong brand: It is as very capital-intensive industry. Even though it would not be difficult for a new company to obtain the raw materials and the labor needed to produce shoes, there is almost no chance for them to gain popularity in such a mature industry with some of the strongest brand names in the world. Brand loyalty is extremely strong and it would be very hard for a new entrant to â€Å"steal† loyal customers from the already existent players. Economies of scales: Economies of scale play a huge role as well and the bigger players have an advantage of producing the products at a lower price than compared with newer entrants. As the output is bigger and the fixed costs of factories, machinery, marketing and R&D will be decreased per unit. Both marketing and R&D constitute high costs and since new entrants will not be able to take advantage of the economies of scale they will be less competitive. * High R&D costs: It means that it’s necessary to invest in R&D if they want to compete against others brands.It’s a survival question in this market. * Industry in consolidation phase: The industry itself is in a consolidation phase and only the big ones will survive. The large companies are strategically and constantly acquiring smaller companies. Some of the most popular acquisitions include Reebok by Adidas, Converse by Nike. Small companies are bought before they become a threat to the bigger ones and before they have a chance to gain market share. In other words, it is impossible to grow in this industry because someone will take over your company. . Substitutes * Other types of product from other brands: Each company has the same product (shoes, tee-shirts, socks†¦). If the customer is not satisfied with one product, it’s easy for him to go in anothe r brand and acquire something close to the first purchase. That’s why each company has to be aware of what it sells and what is the customer’s reaction. * New brand with different strategies: As said in the PORTER’s analysis, today there is some sport brand which are producing apparels but higher than the best known.For example the brand Quinze of Serge Blanco, famous in the rugby world is producing clothes which are expensive than Nike for example but not with the same quality. This kind of brand products with another savoir-faire and the price are not the same but the customer can be attracting to try it. * Entertainment brand: To have fun today and doing something else than working, the customer has plenty of substitution products. The customer can read and there are many brands, which allow reading. Video games are product to entertain people (Sony, Nintendo†¦) . Supplier power * Raw materials and cheap resources: Typically apparels and shoes are manufa ctured using major raw materials cotton, rubber, and foam. All of these materials are commodity goods. In other words, the suppliers do not have the power to bargain the price of their product, since there are numerous suppliers. Hence the supplier power is low. However, there has been some standardization of production in the industry due to growing concerns of labor practices of the suppliers and manufacturers.These practices have been damaging the image of some companies including Nike. Therefore, the big companies prefer to work only with approved manufacturers and suppliers that are known to follow these labor standards. Both Adidas and Nike have created a system to ensure that all the high quality of the product, the working conditions, and the distribution are at high standards. Therefore, suppliers are trying to establish themselves as reliable because once they gain Nike as a customer they know that they will request enormous volumes. However, to reach this level, the suppl ier needs to make investments in their facilities to improve working conditions and many suppliers cannot afford to do so. * Cheap labor: Many people works for â€Å"nothing† in the eastern countries, in Asia to be precise. Competition against the labor cost is impossible and many company delocalize the production abroad to reduce costs. 5. Buyer power: * Everything depends on customer’s preferences: The customer has the choice to buy product in retailing store with general brand or he could go to the special store, branding store as Nike store or Adidas store to get a product.It’s a question of desire and where the customer lives too. * Price sensitivity issue: In the general retailer store, prices are lower than official store. That’s why some customer prefers to go in retailer store and purchase product for lower price and maybe get more compare to the official store. * Growing retailer store: More and more retailer store open and sell apparels and sho es from all sportswear brand. The customer has a lot of choice today and can choose whatever he wants and with his own criteria.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

The Effects of Video Games on Children - 800 Words

The Effects of Video Games on Children Many people claim that violent video games are desensitizing children to violence, and making them more hostile and aggressive in social situations. Many video games nowadays have some sort of violence. These games can range from mild to extremely brutal. When children are exposed to these games, they very well could affect how children think. These games, when exposed to children, will, in fact, make them desensitized to violence, and even become violent themselves. The largest group that plays video games is children. The majority of these games are violent, to a ranging extent. Most of these games are played on evenings or weekends, at their homes. Video games are a very common past-time. The†¦show more content†¦Considering stores are the primary source of obtaining video games, this law is very effective. Another step has been taken by researchers to prevent the children from getting these games. Many scientific studies support tha t violent video games can affect the behavior of children. â€Å"The Parents Television Council has found more than 3,000 studies linking a child’s consumption of violent media to a child’s behavior, yet we’ve found less two dozen that conclude differently† (Winter). Numerous studies of the effect of violent games (and other forms of media) on children have been conducted. Several thousands of these supporting that children are affected by them, against less than two dozen, says that there is an effect on the children. This is because children are actually choosing what happens when they play. The choice would have a much stronger psychological influence than watching a violent movie, because the children would be seeing and acting the violence. Abundant amounts of children exposed to video games become desensitized to violence. â€Å"Social psychologist decided to show students violent pictures: one of a man shoving a gun down another man’s throa t, a second of a man holding a knife to a woman’s throat. Dr. Brad Bushman (Social Psychologist): What we found is for people who were exposed to a lot of violent video games, their brains did not respond to the violent images. They were numb, if you will† (Renee). This study shows that video gamesShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Video Games On Children Essay1279 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Video games have always been a controversial type of entertainment, that may come from how relatively new video games are compared to other mediums of entertainment[1]. 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